history of the internet
dalla Tesina "Le trasformazioni del linguaggio
attraverso i mezzi di comunicazione" di Barbara Ruzzo
ITC Melloni - Classe 5 Sirio - Anno scolastico 2010 – 2011
The internet started in the 60’s when the American Defense Department wanted
an extremely safe way of sending messages in case of nuclear attack.
It was 1957 when the then Soviet Union launched Sputnik, the first man-made
satellite. Americans were shocked by the news. The Cold War was at its peak, and
the United States and the Soviet Union considered each other enemies. If the
Soviet Union could launch a satellite into space, it was possible it could
launch a missile at North America.
President Dwight D. Eisenhower created the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)
in 1958 as a direct response to Sputnik's launch. ARPA's purpose was to give the
United States a technological edge over other countries. One important part of
ARPA's mission was computer science.
In the 1950s, computers were enormous devices that filled entire rooms. They had
a fraction of the power and processing ability you can find in a modern PC. Many
computers could only read magnetic tape or punch cards, and there was no way to network computers
ARPA aimed to change that and to create a computer network. The network had to
connect four computers running on four different operating systems. They called
the network ARPANET.
Without ARPANET, the Internet wouldn't look or behave the way it does today --
Moreover, without ARPANET, it may have taken many more years before anyone tried
to find ways to join regional networks together into a larger system.
Most early Internet users were government and military employees, graduate
students and computer scientists. They used the net to send email messages.
Later on, using the World Wide Web, the hypertext and the web browsers Internet
became much more accessible.
Nowadays Internet is more complex than ever. Not only it has become a sort of
powerful database made up of a vast number of sites were the user can get all
sorts of information, it also connects computers, satellites, mobile devices and
other gadgets together in a massive network millions of times more intricate
than the original ARPANET.
Internet works using a set of rules, the Transmission Control Protocol and
Internet Protocol suite (TCP/IP), and the graphic browsers that allow the end
user to explore the network simply by clicking on the links, texts or photos
that open new windows.
But at the beginning computers were not so user friendly. The first user
interfaces to computers were not graphical or visually oriented; they were all
text and keyboard commands. We can consider that the first computer ever to use
a windows system was the Apple “Lisa”.
Steve Jobs, co-founder of Apple Computers, visited PARC(Palo Alto Research
Center) in 1979 (after buying Xerox stock) and was impressed by the "Alto", the
first computer ever with a graphical user interface, a GUI (pronounced GOO-ee).
GUI is a graphical user interface. The GUI provides you with windows, pull-down
menus, clickable buttons, scroll bars, icons, images and the mouse or pointer.
Several PARC engineers were later hired by Apple and worked on the Apple Lisa
and Macintosh. The Apple research team contributed much in terms of originality
on the way the GUI’s are made nowadays.
The other innovative features include drop-down menu bar, windows, multiple
tasking, the ability to copy and paste, icons, folders and a mouse
.. And to think, we owe it all to a silver beeping ball that once orbited miles
above the Earth's surface.
Una vera e propria agorà virtuale, la massima espressione della democrazia, dove
ognuno può manifestare liberamente il proprio pensiero. È chiaro, quindi, che
tutta questa libertà preoccupa non poco gli uomini al potere, specie se si
trovano a governare da decenni un paese dove, alla fine scoppia la rivolta, come
l’Egitto in queste settimane. Proprio nel paese nordafricano è stato dimostrato
come la potenza della rete e la diffusione delle idee via web non sia solo
frutto di una mentalità fantascientifica
Libri solo su
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3-Piero Torelli (429 file)
4-Carlo Zacco (394 file)
5-Vincenzo Andraous (382 file)
6-Gianni Peteani (322 file)
7-Enrico Maranzana (296
8- Giovanni Ghiselli (291 file)
9-Luca Manzoni (147 file)
10-Sandro Borzoni (142 file)
11-Maria Concetta Puglisi (117 file)
12-Irma Lanucara (110 file)
13-Gennaro Capodanno (95 file)
14-Elio Fragassi (92 file)
15-Laura Alberico (81 file)
16-Alissa Peron (63 file)
17-Francesco Avolio (59 file
18-Rosalia Di Nardo (54 file)
19-Silvia Sorrentino (47 file)
20-Vittorio Tornar (46 file)
20-Cristina Rocchetto (46 file)
22-Samuele Gaudio (44 file)
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