Economy, society and culture under Antonines e Severi

Everyday life and housing have improved dramatically and the movement of goods and products allows everyone to afford meat, fish and public entertainment such as games with fighting animals .

Born collegia , almost a kind of union or guild of those who exercise a trade. The members of the collegia could afford a proper burial instead of being buried in mass graves.

Improves the condition of the slaves for the following reasons:

their loss makes them a rare commodity , to be protected and treated with respect;

The Romans never considered the condition of slaves irreversible, so already foresaw the possible change from slave to free, even for many of them ;

Emperors such as Tiberius, Claudius, Hadrian and Antoninus Pius did the laws in which it recognized the dignity and legal status of slaves punished too harshly of the masters who abused their power.

spread religions such as Christianity ( please read some of the letters of St. Paul in this regard ) and philosophies such as Stoicism of Seneca who consider them like other men ;

spreads using some , not all, of the technological breakthroughs of the Hellenistic world , such as the water mill, and this allows you to replace the workforce with the human arms .

The economic situation in this period of great prosperity and increasing imports of wine and pottery from Gaul , oil from Spain, wheat from Sicily , Africa (province which corresponds more or less to the present and Libya northern Tunisia , and from ‘ Egypt , pepper and spices from the Orient very expensive . Dacia was conquered because there was a great need god gold in ‘ Empire, and that it was rich region .

The only area that appears in the empire involution is precisely the ‘ Italy , and the emperor Trajan was forced to grant low-interest loans to small landowners Italic , crushed by the competition of the province.

Only the strength of the empire during this period hides the crisis that is already in place. When the anarchy after the Severi is less the unitary character of ‘ Empire , Rome can no longer compensate , come to the rescue of the deficit of the Italian towns . In addition, the lack of demand for products put on the market in the imperial economy to its knees , even in the provinces.

Fortunately, during the reign of the Antonines and Severi were a lot of public works , which gave jobs and opportunities to many.

Trajan built markets , a sort of large shopping center in the heart of Rome, the Basilica, the largest library in Rome, and Trajan’s Column had it enlarged the ports of Ostia , Civitavecchia and Ancona , and were devoted an arch at Ancona and one in Benevento .

Adriano completed the reconstruction of the Pantheon , the only pagan temple remained largely intact because reused by Christians, as a Church , and not cut down , like the others.

In addition, he built Hadrian’s Villa in Tivoli, and the Mausoleum , now Castel Sant ‘ Angelo.

Caracalla Baths built the largest in Rome , and in general in these centuries were built in every Roman town , from Britain and Gaul, as far as Africa and Syria , theatres , amphitheatres for public games and forums , that is, the central squares of the city , in a pattern that was repeated almost always the same in every city.