Guerra, pace e sicurezza


di A. Lalomia (fonte: orizzontescuola)

Premessa

Si presenta in questa sede un questionario da somministrare agli allievi delle scuole superiori (ma alcune domande possono essere usate anche in altri segmenti educativi) per invitarli a riflettere su temi che non cesseranno mai di essere attuali, ma che troppo spesso vengono affrontati in modo parziale, manicheo e ideologizzato, in unestenuante e sterile contrapposizione tra ‘falchi e ‘colombe.

Il testo può essere impiegato anche per un approccio interdisciplinare, soprattutto tra Italiano, Storia, Religione, Francese, Inglese, Diritto e Geografia.

Sarebbe auspicabile integrare il questionario con fotocopie di immagini particolarmente rappresentative di tali argomenti, che cerchino di educare alla pace attraverso la conoscenza degli scenari internazionali di crisi e la consapevolezza che l’unico modo per non trovarsi impreparati di fronte agli sviluppi di queste stesse crisi (che potrebbero coinvolgere l’Italia in qualsiasi momento) è quello di non demonizzare gli apparati che assicurano la difesa del Paese e la nostra partecipazione a missioni internazionali per ristabilire o mantenere la convivenza pacifica, garantendo anzi ai suddetti apparati il necessario sostegno. Insomma, il messaggio da trasmettere agli allievi dovrebbe essere quello che la guerra è una cosa troppo seria per essere lasciata alle farneticazioni del Dottor Stranamore di turno, ma anche, all’opposto, alle utopie dei pacifisti irriducibili, disposti ad ogni compromesso e rinuncia, pur di evitare un conflitto.

In tal senso, contestualmente al questionario, mi sentirei di consigliare – per le classi che non hanno adottato l’opera sotto citata e se consentita dalla normativa in vigore – , la distribuzione di copie della fotografia che compare in apertura del volume III (tomo B”, capitolo 48) del manuale Elementi di Storia”, di Camera-Fabietti (Edizioni Zanichelli, Bologna 1998 4 ; pp. 1474-5), perché ritengo che si tratti di un immagine di eccezionale spessore didattico, educativo e morale.

Quei tre lettori assorti nella consultazione dei libri all’interno di quel che resta della biblioteca londinese di Holland House, tra le macerie causate dai bombardamenti aerei tedeschi dell’autunno 1940, rappresentano, per citare la didascalia della foto […] un messaggio di fiducia nelle sorti dell’umanità: sulla brutalità di una violenza, che mai, come nella seconda guerra mondiale, aveva toccato livelli tanto alti, prevalgono pur sempre, alla fine, le ragioni e i valori della cultura.” .

D’altra parte, osservando l immagine, viene da chiedersi se la fine di quella biblioteca non è forse uno dei tanti frutti della politica di appeasement che la Gran Bretagna – in buona compagnia con la Francia – aveva perseguito per troppo tempo nei confronti di Hitler, illudendosi di poter placare quello che in tutta evidenza rappresentava un pericolo per la pace e la sicurezza europee con concessioni che servivano solo ad accrescere la brama di nuovi territori da parte del dittatore e il suo delirio di onnipotenza.

Forse, il tragico destino di quella biblioteca era già segnato nello stesso istante in cui Chamberlain, all’aeroporto di Londra, sventolava con incosciente soddisfazione, quasi si trattasse di un trofeo, quel foglio di carta che Hitler aveva firmato a Monaco. Anche quella volta la pace era salva, certo, ma giusto il tempo necessario per assicurare al tiranno nazista di prepararsi meglio per un conflitto che avrebbe assunto poi dimensioni planetarie.

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Guerra, pace e sicurezza

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A. s. : __________________________________

Allievo / a : ________________________________________

Classe : ________________________________

Data : ___________________________________

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N.B.
Le risposte alle domande contrassegnate con asterisco ( * ) vanno motivate.

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Guerra, pace e sicurezza

1. Prima del questionario che ti appresti a compilare, hai mai affrontato
a scuola i temi che ti vengono proposti in questa sede ?

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2. Sai fornire una definizione articolata dei termini pace”, guerra”
e sicurezza” (quest’ultimo vocabolo riferito sia al singolo paese
che ai rapporti internazionali), citando anche qualche esempio storico
particolarmente significativo ? E inoltre: condividi l’opinione di quegli
studiosi i quali affermano che le guerre non potranno mai scomparire,
perché rappresentano la manifestazione di uno degli impulsi più radicati
della natura umana, vale a dire l’istinto di sopraffazione ? *

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3. Secondo te, la pace è un valore assoluto e universale, da difendere ad ogni
costo (e quindi accettando anche pesanti compromessi, umiliazioni e rinunce),
oppure esistono casi in cui non si può fare a meno di ricorrere all’opzione
militare ? Motiva la risposta, riferendoti anche a precisi fatti storici.

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4. A tuo avviso, quali sono oggi le aree geografiche più a rischio sotto il profilo
dell’eventuale scoppio di una guerra e quali i motivi che potrebbero condurre
a unemergenza di questo tipo ? Nella risposta, cerca di fornire anche
qualche soluzione per evitare che si verifichi un evento del genere (appunto,
un conflitto tra stati).

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5. È possibile, a tuo giudizio, un conflitto nucleare e comunque con armi
non convenzionali (p.e. chimiche e batteriologiche) ? Ed eventualmente,
a che livello ? *

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6. Tra neutralità e adesione ad un patto militare, quale scelta ritieni più saggia ?
Motiva la risposta, ricordando comunque che gli stati neutrali, in genere,
sono anche quelli che hanno un potenziale bellico di tutto rispetto
e per questo motivo riservano una quota non trascurabile del loro PIL
al bilancio della difesa.

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7. Posto che il disarmo universale per molti è soltanto unutopia, è possibile
secondo te il disarmo unilaterale ? *

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8. Nel caso in cui tu ritenga inopportuno l’uso delle armi in qualunque circo-
stanza, come bisognerebbe comportarsi con quei paesi che minacciano
la pace, la sicurezza, la stabilità e la convivenza, anche finanziando
e addestrando organizzazioni terroristiche ? Per esempio: come dovrebbe
comportarsi uno stato che viene aggredito direttamente da un altro, oppure
attraverso una serie di attacchi terroristici di cui si conosce la matrice ?
E inoltre: credi di poter condividere la tesi di coloro i quali sostengono
che una nazione provvista dei mezzi necessari e del consenso interno
debba (anche in assenza di accordi militari) andare in soccorso
di uno stato aggredito dall’esterno o sconvolto da una guerra civile
ovvero da atti di terrorismo, quando questo stato non riesce, da solo,
a fronteggiare l’emergenza ? *

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9. A tuo giudizio, le norme di diritto internazionale sono sufficientemente
chiare e complete in materia di interventi militari di soccorso
attuati in assenza di un’alleanza? *

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10. Che informazioni possiedi del dibattito relativo all’articolo undici
della nostra Costituzione ? E inoltre: sei in grado di interpretare in modo
personale questo punto ?

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11. Che ruolo possono assumere, a tuo avviso, le autorità religiose
che interpretano in modo corretto i testi sacri, nell’opera di mantenimento
della pace, per la soluzione degli scontri armati tra paesi e in caso di guerre
civili ?

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12. Che cosa sintende con la formula industria degli armamenti” e qual è
la tua opinione al riguardo ? Nel rispondere a questa domanda, tieni
presente che, secondo diversi esperti, questo comparto, al di là del ruolo
non trascurabile che riveste sia per la difesa del Paese che in campo
occupazionale, produce mezzi ed elabora tecnologie che vengono impiegati
anche nella vita civile.

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13. Sei interessato all’introduzione, in tutte le scuole superiori italiane,
di una materia come Affari internazionali”, o Difesa e sicurezza”, in grado
di fornirti quei dati che possano consentirti di conoscere meglio
gli argomenti del questionario, in modo da poterli valutare con maggiore
competenza ? Motiva la risposta, indicando (se hai risposto sì”) quante ore
settimanali dovrebbero essere eventualmente riservate a questa disciplina.

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14. Possiedi qualche esperienza di tipo militare ? In caso negativo, sei
interessato a prestare servizio in un corpo delle FF.AA. di tua scelta ?

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15. Che cosa sintende con la formula guerra asimmetrica” e che giudizio
ne dai ? Nella risposta, cerca anche di fornire qualche esempio concreto.

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16. Che opinione hai dell ONU ? Credi anche tu, come molti analisti, che questa
organizzazione si sia allontanata da tempo dai suoi obiettivi iniziali
e che non sia più in grado di assolvere i compiti per i quali è stata fondata ?
In caso affermativo, s’apresti indicare i motivi di questa crisi e proporre
qualche rimedio ?

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17. Conosci altri organismi che abbiano come scopo il mantenimento
della pace e comunque il superamento delle controversie internazionali
e la prevenzione delle crisi, attraverso soprattutto il dialogo e la mediazione ?
E inoltre: conosci associazioni, istituti ed enti – come ad esempio, l Istituto
Affari Internazionali” (http://www.iai.it), l International Institute
for Strategic Studies” (http://www.iiss.org), lo Stockholm International
Peace Research Institute” (http://www.sipri.org) – che cercano
di proporre soluzioni che favoriscano la pace, ma nello stesso tempo
garantiscano anche la sicurezza e la stabilità internazionali ?

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18. Hai letto libri, saggi o articoli specifici almeno su alcuni dei temi oggetto
di tale questionario? In caso affermativo, sei in grado di tracciare,
per ogni testo, una breve sintesi, accompagnandola con un tuo giudizio ?

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19. Hai mai assistito a rappresentazioni cinematografiche o teatrali sui temi
della guerra, della pace e della sicurezza ? In caso affermativo, sai riassu-
mere brevemente ogni singola opera, fornendone anche un giudizio
personale ?

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20. Hai mai partecipato a manifestazioni per la pace ? In caso affermativo,
sai formulare un giudizio sull’evento (o sugli eventi) a cui hai preso parte?

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21. Ritieni che queste iniziative (le manifestazioni per la pace, appunto),
siano sempre giustificabili ? *

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22. Conosci la distinzione di significato tra peace-keeping”, peace-building”
e peace-enforcing” ?

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23. Hai mai pensato di arruolarti con il preciso scopo di partecipare
quanto meno ad operazioni di peace-keeping ? *

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24. Che cosa dice la Costituzione del tuo paese riguardo i temi
indicati nel titolo del questionario e come vengono vissuti questi stessi
temi a livello nazionale ? In particolare, nelle scuole che hai frequentato,
si è mai discusso di tali argomenti ?
[ Solo per gli allievi di madrelingua non italiana. ]

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25. Formula un giudizio su tale questionario (a partire dal suo titolo) e proponi
eventualmente qualche modifica migliorativa.

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Pagina per eventuali integrazioni delle risposte

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Note

1 Indicare il nome della scuola.

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Allievo/a :

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Classe : ___________________________

Data di consegna del questionario all’allievo/a :

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Firma dell’allievo/a e data in cui prende
visione del testo, con le eventuali osservazioni del docente.

 

Firma del docente

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Data : __________________________________

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